RU  UK  EN
Articles  >  Imagine  >  From mightiness to nonentity: Incas

From mightiness to nonentity: Incas

Author: 05.11.2014 | traditions, history, Peru
Today people of Peru celebrate Day of Puno – informal cultural capital of the country. The city now parties and feasts. Splendid celebrations are held in honor of the foundation of Empire of Inca. According to local legend, their arch fathers, Manco Capac as well as his sister and wife Mama Uqllu, came out of the waters of Lake Titicaca and founded Puno nearby.

And everything was fine for Incas till the moment when the Spanish started concurring South America. In fact, the story ended in 1572. It was then when the last leader of the ethnos, Tupac Amaru, was decapitated.

In times of heyday about 15 million people inhabited the empire. And they were no strangers to the word “progress” since roads were built, cities constructed and laws were adopted in the country. Unfortunately, it all sank into the oblivion. With the arrival of Spanish conquistadors the great state was destroyed.

Ironically, notorious European educators in this case played the role that was far from humanistic.

Now, let us talk about Incas’ main achievements.

Having heard the name of the ethnos, most of us, probably, picture bloodthirsty barbarians with a stack of amulets. As it recently turned out, such perception is rather stereotyped and thus not entirely true. Scientists from University of New Haven did an interesting research. Having analyzed the remains of Incas they came to conclusion that the South American nation didn’t make much war.

Very few injuries and wounds were discovered on skulls and skeletons, an average number does not significantly exceed the indicator for peaceful times. To think of, the bones examined date back to the period between years 1000 and 1400. In those times the empire was expanding most rapidly, taking in other territories. The upshot is that Incas were vanquishing others by means of diplomacy not by shedding blood as it is commonly assumed! It was negotiations that were paid special attention when it came to foreign policy. Only in case of a failure the army entered the scene.

If European civilizations are compared to Incas, most resemblance can be found with Roman Empire. Water conducts were built and legal systems were developed in both states. Further still, instances are known when products were delivered by special transport to hard-to-access areas! Importantly, while vanquishing other nations Incas never imposed their religion for they were no fanatics.

They paid much more attention to trade and economy. “Quipu”, special system of documental reports, was introduced in the empire, it allowed effective supervision of the state in real time mode.

Taking into account that not all the people lived in cities where money harbored, authorities invented another way to accumulate important resources. It was called “mita”. Its concept of operation lied in the principle that every adult citizen had to work one month a year building state purpose objects. After that a person was allowed not to pay any taxes.

Incas are also notorious for their accomplishments in fields of culture and medicine. Especially in the latter since it is probably impossible to estimate the former one without a grain of subjectivity. It is hard to believe but in the times doctors knew how to perform craniotomy. On average, 90 per cent of patients out of 100 survived – given that it was 15 th century! It stands to reason that there wasn’t even a mention of analgesics and pain killers. Local healers used vulnerary plants, mainly with narcotic effect.

There is no doubt that Incas created so many things that even a book isn’t enough to merely list them. We concentrated on the aspects that emphasize significance of the ancient civilization. And today, on the Incas’ memory day, representatives of every state can have some thinking about their predecessors since many of us come from powerful and noble nations.

It will be interesting:
On the Move. Street food from around the world. Part 2
Do you happen to get hungry? That is great as we go on with our story about the most popular street food from around the world. It’s freshly cooked - fall to, you guys! Let's start with the South Asian countries, namely Singapore - seafood-rich in vitamins and minerals occupy a key place in the diet of residents ...
Azerbaijan inside out: Henna Nights
We continue publishing author’s column of Sabina Safarova on traditions of Azerbaijan.We have already learned about the matchmaking and the engagement, and now OUTLOOK proposes to plunge into the traditions of rituals and xinayaxdi – henna nights ceremonies which precedes the wedding itself.
On the Move. Street food from around the world
Experienced tourists believe that one of the best sure-fire ways to quickly tune into the beat of another culture is to try local food. In order not to be at a loss when choosing dishes and save precious time for spiritual food, Outlook gives you selective advice on street gastronomy from seven spots of the globe.
Desperate Futurism: Japan. Part 1
OUTLOOK journalist Elena Rasenko came back from Japan and launches a special series of articles devoted to this country. Warning for very sensitive readers: Beware! After reading, you will get a keen desire to break away, buy a ticket and fly to such a marvelous and fascinating Land of the Rising Sun!
Video: Craft of Uzbekistan. Golden-stitched embroidery
OUTLOOK was lucky to visit hospitable Uzbekistan and get better acquainted with crafts of this amazing country. Today we'll tell you about art of golden-stitched embroidery that has long been considered the art of the nobility. We will tell you about mediums artisans use, secrets and unique distinctives of this craft. Feel the world with us!
SPECIAL PROJECT: The Ambassadors tell about New Year's and Christmas traditions
All over the world, winter brings bright celebrations to people's homes, the traditions of how to celebrate them are born. The customs of one state differes from the other but people from different corners of the planet are equally waiting for miracles, pleasant surprises and a good fairy tale. On the eve of the New Year holidays, we decided to ask the diplomats about the peculiarities of New Year and Christmas celebrations in their countries.
Tea empire of the world
Few of us, while our favourite tea is steeping, are scrutinizing about the way this drink went through to get into our mug. Of course, stereotypically, we know that most likely it came from India or China, but in fact origin can vary. In the world there are about 30 countries which are very seriously engaged in tea business, and within this community a very clear hierarchy emerges, headed by the so-called Big Tea Seven.
Amazons from tribe moco: conservation of feminism in the shadow of Himalayas
Composers of antiutopias predict hundreds of sorrows to the people of the future who are from times to times forbidden to celebrate weddings, however, it seems, everything is not so terrible. In Chinese province Yun Nan near the foot of Himalayas the matriarch tribe moco resides that is not familiar with the concept of marriage at all. In their language there are no words like 'husband' and 'wife', in the same time they do not know what it is to be 'jealous', stay in state of 'war' or experience 'betrayal', and they do not complain of their destiny.
Chan Chan. Peru city from clay
Experienced travelers tell that one could watch the ruins of ancient settlements in the Andes during several months, moving from one region to another. Particularly, the richest one in archaeological complexes of is the western coast of the Southern continent. A long time ago, some of them, such as Machu Picchu, have become popular with tourists, others are just beginning to open their doors to curious people.
Azerbaijan inside out: Small and big matchmaking
A Ukrainian woman with Azerbaijani blood Sabina Safarova respects her family roots and, being a member of the Union of Azerbaijani Youth in Ukraine, popularizes the culture of her country. Today, the story of a girl about one of the most interesting traditions of Azerbaijan - matchmaking, we are launching her author's blog, which will be filled with cognitive facts and subtleties of manners.
Gagauzians: Ethnos of white rooster
"A poor peasant lived in a remote Gagauzian village, and wealth of his was his three sons ..." so begins one of the folk tales composed by the Gagauz people. This Turkic people really lived a not wealthy life, roamed the villages, feed sheep... When a family gathered together to have some rest, old and young composed legends in their own way explaining the phenomena of nature noted by a curious and observant eye: why crows are afraid of people, why geese gabble, why an ant has thin waist, and what happens when you put fox and wolf in one harness.
VIDEO: Majestic heritage of Uzbekistan
Thanks to the Embassy of Uzbekistan in Ukraine and personally Ambassador extraordinary and Plenipotentiary Alisher Abdualiev OUTLOOK was lucky enough to visit this hospitable country. And today we will tell about a unique place - the Mausoleum of the prominent military leader and political figure of Amir Temur.
What do they eat: Rome’s cuisine
Outlook often tells about the kitchens of the peoples around the world, but when it comes to Italy, writing about the country should be a crime. Each of its twenty regions has its own culinary world with the subtleties and specialties. Let the title of gastronomic capital of Italy be Bologna, its official capital - Rome, too, has something to boast about. We are telling you what is remarkable about Roman cuisine and what dishes are worth trying in the Eternal City.
Crafts of Uzbekistan. Straw Items
OUTLOOK was lucky to visit hospitable Uzbekistan and get better acquainted with crafts of this amazing country. Today we tell you about art of straw work, about materials that craftsmen use and what secrets and unique features of this craft are. Feel the world with us!
Everything on sale: Worlds's best markets and bazaars
In this day and age, it is difficult to surprise anyone, especially an urban resident, with some large department store or market, since nowadays one can buy everything from a humble convenience store next door. However, the iconic bazaars and flea markets are still operating across the globe, they are famous in legends and described with delight. Well-known is that they turn shopping into a cultural exchange and are much more than just a commercial place for the sale of goods.
Eastern music of Sufi: Qawali
‘Love evolves when one looks in the eyes of the person beloved seeing there God’, in such a way the lines of some Arabian song called Qawali is translated. The authorship of this chant is ascribed to Eastern strangers Sufi who tending to find the sense of existence strolled around the half an Earth bare-footed. In the travels they composed songs where they told narration describing what they had to endure.
Thorny path of flower
Traditional Japanese kabuki theatre has always been a mystery to the European mentality: only an expert on the culture of the Land of the Rising Sun can understand a play without guide’s tips.
Don’t break the tongue: The hardest languages in the world
It is said, the easier it is, the better we feel, however, is it always like that? We know that not all the nations follow this principle. Outlook has found out the strangest, toughest and hard in articulation international languages and would like to share it with the readers.
Fight like a woman. The fight club of flying cholit
The free fight has not feminine face. The good girl could smile in a pretty way and care colorful dress but not strike out wildly. But in the fierce Ands such gentle flowers do not grow. The true Bolivian cholit will be quick on the uptake, and it is able to fill in if necessary. But on Sunday, having gathered the starched skirts, she will desperately go to fight
Tasty Japan: Give the country a try
Ice cream with a taste of horse meat, pickled insects, fish with deadly venom, etc – Japanese cuisine has things to surprise, amaze and shock you with. And truth be told, enumeration of these dishes doesn’t help my appetite at all. But we are not after exotic stuff. True culinary tourism is an attempt to comprehend mindset and feel national distinctive color through traditional cuisine – not try most exotic dishes. Parts of people’s souls, its history and culture are actually concentrated in national dainties.
Close
Outlook facebook page