The great ones of the earth as well as not really great ones set tongues wagging significantly not only when alive but also after death. Indeed, how can one remain silent when looking at a pompous shrine of one or another figure even with Egyptian pyramids off the market? Outlook made sure that Vladimir Lenin’s Mausoleum on the Red Square is a pretty modest resting place unlike…
Unlike, for instance, a “tiny tomb” of Spanish dictator and cinemagoer Francisco Franco. You’re not just seeing things, it is true – leader from the Pyrenees wasn’t too fond of literature however he couldn’t live without movies. In all his residences there were magnificent halls for the viewing of generalissimo’s favorite movies. It is unknown if films ran in the Valley of the Fallen but you must admit that the sepulchre looks great on camera. Construction of the memorial, located 58 km away from Madrid, began in the lifetime of caudillo. The word is, even architects who’ve seen it all, among themselves called Franco nothing less than a “pharaoh with his own pyramid”. 18 years of construction, 6 million ceramic elements, cross 150 meters high, cavated basilica almost 300 meters high, thousands of dead workmen (mainly political prisoners) – all these turned the object into one of the most tremendous mausoleums of the world. Tourists from throughout the globe come here annually as well as leader’s worshipers, although in 2007 Spanish authorities assigned the complex a status of Francoist regime victims monument (alongside the dictator himself 33 to 40 thousand Civil War participants are buried there) and forbade holding all kinds of political events on site.
Napoleon Bonaparte, according to his contemporaries, wasn’t the most modest man yet, as opposed to Franco, he didn’t erect himself monuments in his lifetime. However, his ashes rest in a majestic building that is one of the symbols of Paris along with the Eiffel Tower and the Arch of Triumph. National Residence of Invalids with its twice gilded dome (that took over 30 kg of gold) – is a perfect example of classicism architecture. By the way, the title of the construction isn’t flashy at all since it was built for the veterans back in 17th century and is still partly used as intended. Narrowly a hundred disabled French military men who feel like “neighboring” with the great commander and his comrades live there today. Still, there have been doubts as to the former one for over a decade. The great Hugo might have written that in 1840 roughly half a million people came to pay the last tribute to the Emperor and “it seemed as if the entire Paris shifted to one city part like water in a vase that was tilted”, all of them could have been cheated on. Since 2002 numerous French historians and experts now and again demand from the government verification of the remains because there is this theory according to which it isn’t Bonapart at all resting under the dome but a Jean-Baptiste Cipriani – his head waiter.
On the other side of Europe, in Turkey, they have idols of their own. Among them there is Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, the founder and the president of the first republic. Upon his death in 1938 the body of the “Father of Turks” was reintered a couple of times until it found its permanent refuge in the mausoleum with a hardly pronounceable name Anitkabir. Built in a 7-year term (1944 – 1953) it still remains for the citizens of Ankara and the whole country as sacred a place as a construction on the Red Square used to be for the communist in USSR times. Annually at least 2 million visitors come here the bulk of them being Turks. Aside the building itself, a park and a museum, the shrine attracts attention due to Kemal’s automobiles collection and his duplicated office.
Next one in the line is probably world’s most famous mausoleum – that’s Indian Taj Mahal. Created by order of the ruler Shah Jahan back in 1632, it appears in just about every second movie about India. Padishah’s wife Mumtaz Mahal who died in labor was the first to be buried there. Later another tomb of Jahan himself appeared. 20 thousand workmen were building the shrine, many of them, according to the legend, were killed upon erection of the complex. Annually it is visited by 4 million tourists lured not only by the grandeur of the white marble construction but also by dozens of myths connected to it. I prefer two of them. Consistently with the first one, Shah Jahan wanted to create on the other bank of Yamuna River a twin in black marble and connect them with a grey bridge but fate had decreed otherwise. Second legend suggests that in 19th century ruler of British Raj Lord William Bentnick wanted to destroy Taj Mahal. The reason was marble that Governor General allegedly intended to sell in an auction. But, as they say, no harm no foul: the monument is safe and sound and it is even forbidden to fly on a plane over it.
And we’ll conclude with what we started from – with Vladimir Lenin. His shrine in the centre of Moscow clearly meets abovementioned objects halfway in many respects. But it could have been elsewise for the non-built Palace of the Soviets in the capital of the USSR was supposed to become not only a mausoleum but also one of the most colossal buildings in the world. Cathedral of Christ the Savior demolished by Bolshevists “liberated” huge space and it was in its place where they began to lay foundation for the construction 420 meter high (there was nothing higher on earth at that time). However, war and economic severities never allowed a 100-storyed skyscraper with Lenin on the top become the symbol of “New Moscow” (although it did manage to appear on post cards and city maps). Erected constructions were sent to front and turned into bridges and other strategic objects and out of the remains a big pool was made. After the war no one actually cared about the project therefore it only remained on paper and in some fiction quasi-historic movies.
"A small territory with a great mission" is the motto under which on February 11, 1929 Lateran Treaty between the Kingdom of Italy and the Holy See recognized Vatican as a sovereign territory. It was an agreement which opened doors for curious patrons who for centuries had been trading gossip about "What is kept inside Vatican castles?". Evil tongues grumbled that the walled enclave protected magic books of how to seize the world, the castle’s cellars hide torture chambers for sinners, and after liturgies alchemists are busy inventing the Philosopher's Stone. But when museums welcomed visitors, both guests and the Romans gasped with delight. Collectors estimated that the cost of all the works of art featured by almost the smallest country in the world, is 150 times more than the world's GDP.
After having spent merely an hour for a flight from Kiev, I suddenly realized I reached the city where continental Europe’s oldest subway is situated. And things that Budapest underground is famous for are not limited to this. OUTLOOK sets on a trip around metropolitan of one of the world’s most beautiful cities. Want to go down?
Thanks to the Embassy of Uzbekistan in Ukraine and personally Ambassador extraordinary and Plenipotentiary Alisher Abdualiev OUTLOOK was lucky enough to visit this hospitable country. And today we will tell about a unique place - the Mausoleum of the prominent military leader and political figure of Amir Temur.
It is said, the easier it is, the better we feel, however, is it always like that? We know that not all the nations follow this principle. Outlook has found out the strangest, toughest and hard in articulation international languages and would like to share it with the readers.
After the walking along the boisterous streets of Seoul one wants to take it easy in a café drinking a cup of flavored tea, however, it never happens like that. Good teahouses are found out only near Buddhist monasteries or at the bohemian pedestrian street Insadon. Chinese ceremony in Korea that is incomparable with the rough schedule of offices and plants do not reach out people remaining the joy of wise people and privilege of the masters.
Words we vocalize every day seem ordinary and familiar to us. We even get the feeling that, for instance, the word “chauffeur” existed forever. There is only this slight nuance: cars themselves re a little over hundred years old… Hence, things aren’t that simple when it comes to our day-to-day vocabulary. Well then, why not recollect interesting stories of other words origin?
United Nations Organization was created in order to cease global violence, protect human rights and eradicate poverty. On October, 24, 1945 founding states ratified the treaty on creation of global body that acquired the name the UN.
Human history remembers Dresden, Hiroshima, Nagasaki. The list goes on and it includes Pompeii where residents turned into stoned monuments against their will. Located near modern Naples, the city with views of Mount Vesuvius was one of the most developed cities not only in the Roman Empire, but also in Europe. Once thriving community it flourished in many spheres: painting...
First exhibition of paintings in the world’s most visited museum the Louvre was opened on 1793. But its building was well-known far beyond France, though the edifice was not used with such lofty cultural purposes.
Despite a wide-spread belief, European flea markets have little in common with both second-hand and ordinary trade rows on traditional merchandise markets. These places per se are unique due to a one-of-a-kind reflection of the country’s spirit and what at first glance seems like plain goods may tell you about its past and help feel a spirit of an era.
They are referred to differently in every other place but are loved, probably, in the same way everywhere. Sure enough, we talk about money or more precisely their “second names” because alongside official ones currencies have common nicknames.
Fantasy story about a boy Bastian, who stole a book with an amulet on its cover, and the adventures of a brave Atreyu - The NeverEnding Story - is undoubtedly an iconic movie. This film classic was created in 1984, before computer graphics, virtual studios and wonders drawn up on the screen. And a few people know what a reverse side of the film is...
“I don’t mean a thing if it ain’t that swing”, - that’s what famous jazz musician Glenn Miller used to say. African slaves brought to the USA began performing ‘dotty’ rhythm and swinging pulsations for white jazzmen to take up mysterious syncope later. At that, “black” and “white” jazz were going in separate directions: Africans preferred improvisation while Europeans opted for ready melodies.
For more than 50 years a World Day of Twin Cities falls on the last Sunday of April. The beginning of the World War II is considered to be a starting point of town-twinning. Enthusiasts from Coventry – a major industrial centre of England which survived intense bombing by the Nazis – sent to the Soviet Stalingrad, the city of the same level of industrial development and population, letter supporting confrontation to Hitler. In return they got a warm and appreciative response.
"One, who lives in the house on the fringe, is the first to protect his people", this Ukrainian proverb fits the history of the Israeli people, but instead of "house" it shall be "fortress". When the Romans attacked, Jerusalem residents fought the Romans with inhuman valour "back to back" till enemy legions pushed them to the last stand. Concentrated in the fortress of Masada, near the Dead Sea, the Jews rebels showed brave resistance to the Romans. Although few people survived, Masada still has emblematic value as a monument to national courage.
Merely on hearing “Silk Road” we picture valiant wanderers and caravans full of precious items and exotic articles that cross countries and continents. Today we tell about Tajik cities that acted as major transfer points on this trading artery.
July 14, 1795, 6 years after the Storming of the Bastilles, the French officially approved revolutionary Marseillaise in the capacity of the state’s anthem. To this occasion, OUTLOOK suggests you take a plunge not only into notes and words but also into unusual stories of state “hits” creation.
It owes its appearance to black slavery and Prohibition. It was originally sold in chemist’s shops as a remedy for nerves and impotency, and today 80% of Earth population drinks this beverage. World brand “Coca-Cola” celebrates 129 years of existence this year.