Borders cannot make harm: the most famous enclaves of the world
Before we start our wonderful trip, it is important to look into the details of the terminology, because the verily concepts ‘enclave’ and ‘exclave’ are sometimes confused. Indeed, they mean the same. In the case of the country which area is situated in the borders of another state the area is called exclave. In the meantime, when we talk about the country with the territory under somebody’s control, it is called as enclave.
Let’s take, for example, our first destination, exactly, the ancient Spanish cities Seuta and Melillia which are exclave for
Let’s stay within the borders of the Black continent, however, let’s move to its South, at the area of South Republic of Africa in the center of which there is the entire state-enclave Lesotho inhabited by two million people. Because of hardly accessible landscape, the mountains with the height of more than
The picturesque Italy is famous not only for the various temperatures but also with the fact that its territory hosts several states-enclaves. If San Marino and Vatican are well-known because of their status and travel potential, the tiny monarch Malthusian Order is the true uncharted territory. This chivalric order is considered as the oldest one in the world. According to the official information, it takes nearly 13 thousand people from all over the world, and it owns Mathesian castle in the verily center of Rome, at Condotti Street. The territory of the castle is not simply residence of Master, but also independent object with the defense, own currency, stamps, and other attributes of independent state. Its status of enclave for Romans has been supported since the middle of XIX century, and nobody encroaches upon it, because nowadays the knights are brave guys, and among them there are many influential people from Europe, if one believes to the rumors. The life outside the palace is full of mysteries and uncertainty for usual citizens because only selected ones are able to get into the majority of its inner territories. The verily order has its representative of United Nations and it supports diplomatic relations with more than one hundred states. It earns money from the sale of souvenirs and its business profits in many countries, particularly, in Sweden where we are moving. Mean, in the city Campione d’Italia.
Being so hospitable at the motherland, Italians created their own exclave within the territory of another country. Located in 50 kilometers from Milano, the community and same-name city Campione do not have the direct transition with the ‘main Italy’, however, they are included in the region Lombardia. These lands have been famous for their democratic conditions. For instance, when in XIX century territorial arguments were solved with the help of wars, the local citizenship peacefully defined in the composition of which country (Sweden or Italy) it saw its future. Due to such willingness such geographical and administrative case happened. In the meantime, it never worried the city as there are euro and frank while children learn two languages at school. Due to the special economic zone in Campione there has been casino working for one hundred years. It provides with job approximately 20 percent of local citizens. The travel scope is blossoming due to the lake Lugano, beautiful villas and confused taxation system that allows to get the shadow incomes.
In another part of Sweden, at the verily North, not far away from German border there is one more enclave, city Büsingen am Hochrhein that belongs in Germany. Fifty years ago the local citizens expressed wish to join Sweden fully, but only in territory. However, the citizens of Sweden cannot give lands for the equal exchange to Germans. It is hard to see here euro currency, the citizens work at Swiss enterprises that’s why they get salary in franks. It is interesting how police works in Büsingen. It has Swiss and German origination, that’s why there are different misconception which should be solved at higher level. It is good that the crime rate is quite low here. In the same competing way the telecommunication companies work, as post, TV, and repairmen services are represented with both German and Sweden companies, so, citizens have right to choose. The situation with football is even more exciting. The local team Büsingen is the only German one that plays in the championship of Switzerland.
One more cute example from Europe is nine-thousand city Baarle separated between Belgium and Netherlands. Its Belgian part includes 22 micro-enclaves located at Netherland territory. The border between the states is going on the houses of the citizens. For instance, kitchen could be in Belgium while bedroom may be located in Netherlands, that’s why countries agreed to define the belonging to one of the states taking into consideration the entrance door of the house. Such a difficult situation has been relevant for more than 500 years since the time when Flemish feudal lords made trades with the land not thinking about the future. Nowadays when neither Belgians nor Netherlanders could boast of the huge territories, they saw importance in each meter of their land, and it was decided to divide everything accurate within centimeter. That’s why today everything has a couple: there are two departments of police, post, municipality, and church. Only looking at the flag at the building, one could understand if he has not confused the country.
Unfortunately, quite often enclaves become the subject of serious territorial arguments and wars, that’s why we would like to end our feature with the magnificent and reasonable example of mutual understanding between countries demonstrated by India and Bangladesh. In 2015 they coped with more than 40-year conflict because of which nearly 50 thousand people residing in the almost inaccessible regions with unclear status did not have any citizenship. The countries decided to exchange such enclaves at the areas belonging to each other near their border. So as to make the life of local citizens comfortable, they gave a possibility to choose the nationality. The result of this decision became modification of relations between countries and positive changes in the life of usual people.
Cover photo: nаsamnatam.com