RU  UK  EN
Статьи  >  Imagine  >  White gold of Tianxia. Chinese porcelain

White gold of Tianxia. Chinese porcelain

Автор: 02.10.2020 | art, traditions, China
The civilization of ancient China was one of the first to discover porcelain. It is established that back in II millennium BC the firing temperature of pottery found in the Yellow River was close to 1200 ° C. According to some researchers, the invention of porcelain was dictated by the desire to find a replacement for greenstone and jade.

The optimal ratio of porcelain stone and kaolin, giving a ringing thin-walled shard, touched by a matte blush, was not found immediately. Celadons of the Tang epoch, massive vases with embossed décor, covered with iron-containing glaze, played an important role of a transitional link from Han Chinese ceramics to Chinese porcelain. The degree of oxidation of iron determined the color of the product: with an excess of oxygen, the vessel acquired a yellowish color, and with a limited access of air, the vases were painted in soft bluish tones.

The golden age of Chinese porcelain began in 1004 when the first porcelain factory was launched in Jingdezhen to serve the needs of the court ceremonial. The rich deposits of kaolin along the shores of Poyang Lake made it possible not to feel sorry for white clay for porcelain dough. To improve the plastic properties of the material, the kneaded mass was kept in special storages for at least a decade, and before being put into the oven, they were beaten with hammers for a long time. From the flame of tightly sealed underground furnaces, the “white gold of Tianxia” emerged - graceful thin shards with a translucent wall that were not inferior in strength to the iron. Roasting lasted for two days. On the third day the oven was opened and it was allowed to cool down until the next morning.7-things-to-consider-when-collecting-chinese-porcelains.jpgPhoto christies.com

Spar glaze was harvested separately by mixing the ingredients in slightly different proportions than when kneading dough. Glazing compositions were applied in several layers of different degrees of transparency, with the result that a matte sheen appeared on the surface of the products. Cups with hidden patterns that appear in the thickness of the walls when heated were of the special priz. It is easy to explain the focus: the vessels were glued together from two halves, covering the inside with a floral pattern, and leaving the outer part white.

In the Yuan era, the refined technique of underglaze cobalt painting appears which than became the hallmark of medieval China. The thick blue tint of cobalt paints imported from the islands of Sumatra and Java emphasized the connection of the ruling house with the deified Sky and effectively shaded the shining whiteness of the crock.1217.jpgPhoto tooveys.com

During the Min period, spar glaze palette was supplemented with rich shades of carmine and cinnabar, which were probably extracted from copper powder. The ruby-red glazed porcelain was revered as a state relic and was involved in the ceremony of worship. Unfortunately, the technology of making red porcelain has been lost for centuries. There are no more than a hundred copies of it left around the world, ten of which are in Jingdezhen Ceramics Museum. Porcelain vessels, decorated with monochrome yellow painting, represented the reigning bogdyhan. A calligraphically written stamp reproduced the slogan of the board.

Read also: Kintsugi. Japanese art of restoration

Starting from the 15th century, Utsai style, using five basic tones — yellow, red, blue, white, and green — becomes popular in Tianxia. The drawing at first seems to be sketchy and devoid of fantasy, but a deep symbolic subtext breaks down behind imaginary simplicity. The lotus flower signified purity of thoughts and nobility of spirit, peony - wealth and honor, an orchid branch - family happiness and longevity. A pair of phoenixes or mandarin ducks foreshadowed loyalty in love, and the image of a deer indicated the high position of the cup holder. Plots with dragons, lions and elephants personified the desire of power, strength and happiness to the imperial family, and the composition “three friends of a cold winter” from a branch of blossoming plum, young shoots of bamboo and pine served as the personification of courage and resilience.81VylE560lL._SL1200_.jpgPhoto boingboing.net

During the tea ceremony in the imperial palace, chinaware served as the ranking of participants. The right to drink tea from a piala with a print of a five-fingered dragon under amber glaze was possessed only by crowned persons - the Son of Heaven with his second half and the widowed empress, and the combination of the background and monogram colors could determine the title of grandee and rank of concubine.washer-sotheby-s-n-lot-bkrlfr-chinese-ceramics-work-of-Ecf7872670ecc50337e3fd5cb75e8b9a0.jpgPhoto interest.pics

The reign of the Manchu Qing dynasty was marked by the rapid development of polychrome porcelain painting. The great admirer of porcelain was the emperor Kangxi, in which seven-color cobalt pigments came into vogue with variations from pale blue to dark purple. The closest descendants of Kangxi, the son Yongcheng and the grandson Qianlong, patronized the “doucai” technique, which means “rival colors”. The combination of underglaze and overglaze painting techniques opened the way to the creation of complex subject paintings based on classical Chinese literature. Before glazing, the outline of the future pattern was marked with cobalt, and after firing, the products were painted with enamel paints.

Cover photo nouahsark.com

Вам это будет интересно:
Tajik сombs of beauty
When Bahriddin’s mother was getting ready for work, she was assiduously arranging her hair around her tubeteika. It resulted in some sort of a crown. On holidays she plaited special adornments into her black hair with a tinge of blue. When she walked, they were tinkling slightly to create an aura of a dance. And in evenings little Bahriddin couldn’t fall asleep without holding her tight braid in his hands.
Kalash: Amazing people in the mountains of Pakistan
While watching Discovery or other popular science shows it seems that our planet has been explored and examined length and breadth long ago. However some phenomena that we come across in our lives literally knock us down. Like, for instance, the fact that in Hindu Kush Mountains mysterious and blonde Kalash people live in isolation...
Fight like a woman. The fight club of flying cholit
The free fight has not feminine face. The good girl could smile in a pretty way and care colorful dress but not strike out wildly. But in the fierce Ands such gentle flowers do not grow. The true Bolivian cholit will be quick on the uptake, and it is able to fill in if necessary. But on Sunday, having gathered the starched skirts, she will desperately go to fight
Belgian lace: Waltz of a thousand threads
At the sight of Flemish lacework it is hard to shake the feeling that miraculous flowers, artfully braided into a wreath of a pattern, were born from loose sparks that had escaped a magic wand. On the inside of the beauty there are efforts and days of jetsam girls, stolen from life by labyrinth of openwork loops.
Everything on sale: Worlds's best markets and bazaars
In this day and age, it is difficult to surprise anyone, especially an urban resident, with some large department store or market, since nowadays one can buy everything from a humble convenience store next door. However, the iconic bazaars and flea markets are still operating across the globe, they are famous in legends and described with delight.
Serpent Charmers: How to make a snake dance?
Magic dance of a snake in time with flute’s melody often described in Eastern fairy tales and depicted in movies is no fiction but a true symbol of those countries. In Egypt, India, African countries and some other states slithering tribe are tamed to make a spectacular entertainment out of it. Profession of reptile charmers exists there; it is believed to be as nearly as the most amazing on Earth.
Maculele: dance to make the sparks fly
When the first emigrants from Africa came to Brazil, they brought rousing actions in the country that had been living upon the principle ‘Life is a carnival’. As the citizens of Africa explained, dance maculele appeared in the environment where slaves had to protect themselves from the encroachment of their owners.
The way they dance
What is it that characterizes any nation without much words and long explanations? Dances, of course, because it is these movements, refined over centuries, that can tell a foreigner about other peoples much more than thick history books. If you carefully watch and feel the way people dance in different countries, their mind set will become much more comprehensible. And these aren’t mere words.
Baltic gold: Amber running through veins
We have amber flowing through our veins, joke the Balts. They believe that a sunny stone comes from tear drops of their goddess Jūratė. According to legend, she was careless enough to fall in love with a mere mortal fisherman named Kastytis who day by day cast his nets to the Baltic Sea.
Filthy creativity
Dirty cars are like a host for an artist. One may treat such art differently. Someone will wrinkle his nose and disdainfully wrestle his clothes. Others necessarily want to put a finger in such a picture in order to check the fragility of the "canvas" and smear its outlines. However, others will definitely make a selfie. However, nobody can pass by.
The magnificent world of land-art: Patrick Dougherty
Land-art is not simply the landscape design but also the whole direction in art which in thee 21-st century considered one of the most important when only lazy people do not speak about the ‘green technologies’ and environment. The names of stars of such an activity have sturdily come into the speech of the tutors, critics, and connoisseurs, especially they outline Patrick Dougherti.
Art of topiary
When I, as a little girl, for the first time passed my hand over trimmed bush, my palm got scratched with sharp edges of twigs and lasting arborvitae fragrance hit my nose. Mesmerized, I was not able to take my eyes away from the cones, balls and squares that surrounded me in the park of a small resort town. I felt like being inside a fairy tale, where behind the leaves I could notice a smile of the Cheshire Cat.
Tea empire of the world
Few of us, while our favourite tea is steeping, are scrutinizing about the way this drink went through to get into our mug. Of course, stereotypically, we know that most likely it came from India or China, but in fact origin can vary. In the world there are about 30 countries which are very seriously engaged in tea business, and within this community a very clear hierarchy emerges, headed by the so-called Big Tea Seven.
Mosque: Shrine of the Muslim world
Mosque, is a prayer building with a dome. It has adjacent minaret towers, there can be not more then nine minarets; stepping inside a pilgrim sees ancient writings which are lines from the Quran. Only Arabic words adorn the walls, portrait painting is prohibited. Today we will tell our readers about the most extraordinary treasures of the Muslim world.
Azerbaijan inside out: Henna Nights
We continue publishing author’s column of Sabina Safarova on traditions of Azerbaijan.We have already learned about the matchmaking and the engagement, and now OUTLOOK proposes to plunge into the traditions of rituals and xinayaxdi – henna nights ceremonies which precedes the wedding itself.
Shrimp fishing at Oostduinkerke: Horses for courses
If early morning you walk along sandy beaches of Oostduinkerke, located in one of Belgium western provinces, you can see several suns. One, of course, is in the sky, and others are bright yellow spots riding horses carrying heavy wicker baskets, while plying the shallows along the North Sea coast for shrimps. Oostduinkerke and shrimps are hand and glove, so horseback shrimping is still practiced here.
Azerbaijan inside out: Engagement
We continue to publish the stories of Ukrainian women with Azerbaijani blood Sabina Safarova about the amazing culture of Azerbaijan. The girl continues her author's blog and today offers to learn the subtleties of such an interesting tradition as engagement.
Azerbaijan inside out: Small and big matchmaking
A Ukrainian woman with Azerbaijani blood Sabina Safarova respects her family roots and, being a member of the Union of Azerbaijani Youth in Ukraine, popularizes the culture of her country. Today, the story of a girl about one of the most interesting traditions of Azerbaijan - matchmaking, we are launching her author's blog, which will be filled with cognitive facts and subtleties of manners.
METRO beauty
Residents of big cities almost daily use the subway as a transport means. Alas, in the rapid pace of modern life a few people can afford to enjoy the design of these transit hubs. OUTLOOK is not able to stop time, but allow us to highlight fifteen of the most mesmerizing underground subway station from all around the world.
Mandala Therapy
Yesterday I created a Universe. I took some peas, rice, buckwheat, millet, black and white pepper seeds and cardamom. Grabbed a handful of coffee and aniseeds. Then it all acquired a centre. It kept growing and calming my thoughts. When the last seed landed in the circle, I felt forgotten harmony again, heard birds singing through the noise of cars on the avenue...
Закрыть
Outlook facebook page