RU  UK  EN
Статьи  >  Imagine  >  White gold of Tianxia. Chinese porcelain

White gold of Tianxia. Chinese porcelain

Автор: 02.10.2020 | art, traditions, China
The civilization of ancient China was one of the first to discover porcelain. It is established that back in II millennium BC the firing temperature of pottery found in the Yellow River was close to 1200 ° C. According to some researchers, the invention of porcelain was dictated by the desire to find a replacement for greenstone and jade.

The optimal ratio of porcelain stone and kaolin, giving a ringing thin-walled shard, touched by a matte blush, was not found immediately. Celadons of the Tang epoch, massive vases with embossed décor, covered with iron-containing glaze, played an important role of a transitional link from Han Chinese ceramics to Chinese porcelain. The degree of oxidation of iron determined the color of the product: with an excess of oxygen, the vessel acquired a yellowish color, and with a limited access of air, the vases were painted in soft bluish tones.

The golden age of Chinese porcelain began in 1004 when the first porcelain factory was launched in Jingdezhen to serve the needs of the court ceremonial. The rich deposits of kaolin along the shores of Poyang Lake made it possible not to feel sorry for white clay for porcelain dough. To improve the plastic properties of the material, the kneaded mass was kept in special storages for at least a decade, and before being put into the oven, they were beaten with hammers for a long time. From the flame of tightly sealed underground furnaces, the “white gold of Tianxia” emerged - graceful thin shards with a translucent wall that were not inferior in strength to the iron. Roasting lasted for two days. On the third day the oven was opened and it was allowed to cool down until the next morning.7-things-to-consider-when-collecting-chinese-porcelains.jpgPhoto christies.com

Spar glaze was harvested separately by mixing the ingredients in slightly different proportions than when kneading dough. Glazing compositions were applied in several layers of different degrees of transparency, with the result that a matte sheen appeared on the surface of the products. Cups with hidden patterns that appear in the thickness of the walls when heated were of the special priz. It is easy to explain the focus: the vessels were glued together from two halves, covering the inside with a floral pattern, and leaving the outer part white.

In the Yuan era, the refined technique of underglaze cobalt painting appears which than became the hallmark of medieval China. The thick blue tint of cobalt paints imported from the islands of Sumatra and Java emphasized the connection of the ruling house with the deified Sky and effectively shaded the shining whiteness of the crock.1217.jpgPhoto tooveys.com

During the Min period, spar glaze palette was supplemented with rich shades of carmine and cinnabar, which were probably extracted from copper powder. The ruby-red glazed porcelain was revered as a state relic and was involved in the ceremony of worship. Unfortunately, the technology of making red porcelain has been lost for centuries. There are no more than a hundred copies of it left around the world, ten of which are in Jingdezhen Ceramics Museum. Porcelain vessels, decorated with monochrome yellow painting, represented the reigning bogdyhan. A calligraphically written stamp reproduced the slogan of the board.

Read also: Kintsugi. Japanese art of restoration

Starting from the 15th century, Utsai style, using five basic tones — yellow, red, blue, white, and green — becomes popular in Tianxia. The drawing at first seems to be sketchy and devoid of fantasy, but a deep symbolic subtext breaks down behind imaginary simplicity. The lotus flower signified purity of thoughts and nobility of spirit, peony - wealth and honor, an orchid branch - family happiness and longevity. A pair of phoenixes or mandarin ducks foreshadowed loyalty in love, and the image of a deer indicated the high position of the cup holder. Plots with dragons, lions and elephants personified the desire of power, strength and happiness to the imperial family, and the composition “three friends of a cold winter” from a branch of blossoming plum, young shoots of bamboo and pine served as the personification of courage and resilience.81VylE560lL._SL1200_.jpgPhoto boingboing.net

During the tea ceremony in the imperial palace, chinaware served as the ranking of participants. The right to drink tea from a piala with a print of a five-fingered dragon under amber glaze was possessed only by crowned persons - the Son of Heaven with his second half and the widowed empress, and the combination of the background and monogram colors could determine the title of grandee and rank of concubine.washer-sotheby-s-n-lot-bkrlfr-chinese-ceramics-work-of-Ecf7872670ecc50337e3fd5cb75e8b9a0.jpgPhoto interest.pics

The reign of the Manchu Qing dynasty was marked by the rapid development of polychrome porcelain painting. The great admirer of porcelain was the emperor Kangxi, in which seven-color cobalt pigments came into vogue with variations from pale blue to dark purple. The closest descendants of Kangxi, the son Yongcheng and the grandson Qianlong, patronized the “doucai” technique, which means “rival colors”. The combination of underglaze and overglaze painting techniques opened the way to the creation of complex subject paintings based on classical Chinese literature. Before glazing, the outline of the future pattern was marked with cobalt, and after firing, the products were painted with enamel paints.

Cover photo nouahsark.com

Вам это будет интересно:
On the Move. Street food from around the world. Part 2
Do you happen to get hungry? That is great as we go on with our story about the most popular street food from around the world. It’s freshly cooked - fall to, you guys! Let's start with the South Asian countries, namely Singapore - seafood-rich in vitamins and minerals occupy a key place in the diet of residents ...
Yodel - Music of the Austrian mountains
Austrian tour operators launched an unusual touristic tourdesigned for fans of singing style called yodel. Hikers wander through the Ziller Valley, a broad trail narrows opening the way for only the most avid travellers, then track leads upwards. Tourists look into the interactive station shaped as a giantsonorous walk-in cowbell, then they go around thelargest alpine horn and head to place...
Appeasement and beauty. Impressive temples of Asia
Buddhists say: to get rid of suffering, one should get rid of desire. There are special places for that. Today we suggest you to check out our top five of stunning temples, where Buddhists and tourists are looking for a way to harmony for their souls.
Blood. Money. Feather
This entertainment is strictly forbidden in almost all countries of the world. But lovers of cockfights do not stop. Partly illegal competitions always gather full halls or courtyards, depending on the fact where the deadly bird fights are. Spectators literally savor the way the birds tear each other to shreds, without showing pity for themselves and their rivals.
Boat instead of shopping basket: Famous floating markets
Stores, shopping malls, markets - all these places are an integral part of daily goings-on of almost every person on our planet. It would seem there is nothing special about them: they are all alike, just goods and prices vary depending on country or city. In fact, it is not quite true since some markets are only accessible via waterways. Our today’s story is about them.
On the Move. Street food from around the world
Experienced tourists believe that one of the best sure-fire ways to quickly tune into the beat of another culture is to try local food. In order not to be at a loss when choosing dishes and save precious time for spiritual food, Outlook gives you selective advice on street gastronomy from seven spots of the globe.
Desperate Futurism: Japan. Part 3. “Samurai Spirit”
If what they show in cinematograph is true than a typical samurai appears to be austere, taciturn and even slightly unsociable person. But this image in actual fact doesn’t get in line with reality... You don’t believe it? Our journalist Elena Rasenko suggests you make sure of it for yourself.
Mandala Therapy
Yesterday I created a Universe. I took some peas, rice, buckwheat, millet, black and white pepper seeds and cardamom. Grabbed a handful of coffee and aniseeds. Then it all acquired a centre. It kept growing and calming my thoughts. When the last seed landed in the circle, I felt forgotten harmony again, heard birds singing through the noise of cars on the avenue...
Rice fields: Grains of unbelievable beauty
- Do you want to try some rice? - such a question is greeted by guests in China. And if the owners are also farmers, they can invite you on an unusual excursion and show you the masterpiece of natural art. The grass which we often eat without thinking about its aesthetics, at the time of growing resembles a blanket woven from multi-colored rags ...
Desperate Futurism: Japan. Part 2 “Fish Day”
It is just as hard to imagine a Japanese who doesn’t eat fish as to picture a Scott who doesn’t drink whiskey. OUTLOOK journalist Elena Rasenko will tell you about a unique place where successors of samurai purchase fine seafood for their tables.
Bregenz. To the Theatre in a Tuxedo And on a Catamaran
Especially for those who believe theatre and opera music to be vestige of the past, we tell about an amazing Austrian theatre where traditional art meets technical and engineering novelties and also a great view of the Alps.
Desperate Futurism: Japan. Part 1
OUTLOOK journalist Elena Rasenko came back from Japan and launches a special series of articles devoted to this country. Warning for very sensitive readers: Beware! After reading, you will get a keen desire to break away, buy a ticket and fly to such a marvelous and fascinating Land of the Rising Sun!
Thailand handcraft: From silk to pearls
Have you ever thought how many grains of history are stored in each item sold at little booths in Thailand? Yet, strolling along those souvenir stalls you are browsing craft records of the whole nation, briefly looking through notes survived from a thousand years ago to the present day. Some pages have thinned to transparency, but marks did preserve their former accuracy.
Ecuador: To be an indian
Our journalist came back from Ecuador with unique experience and we share it with you. For the first time I was suspected of drug trafficking. Alone, in the country where there is no Ukrainian Embassy, I was standing and feverishly figuring out if someone could plant something on me on the way to the airport.
Step over threshold: The magical art of the huichol
Dazzling flashes of ancient knowledge manifested in colourful shimmering beads and in elaborated yarn mosaics by Huichol Indians, captivate the imagination calling for an endless journey through branches of the world tree. Spiritual images take on flesh in intricate ornaments that accompany a Mexican peasant throughout his life.
Lost island of Yap. The land of big money
How can you understand the nature of finance, if there is no desire to go deep into the jungle of science? It is better to see once, than to read a hundred times: a trip to the island of Yap in Micronesia replaces the entire university course of monetary theory. Yap roads are lined up with giant doughnut-shaped, carved disks the size of a millstone - rampant inflation has made the world biggest money into fun for tourists.
Road to Asia is paved with carpets
Carpets hang on walls as a symbol of wealth, lay on floors to create coziness and are presented as expensive gifts. Studying fancy pictures in the shapes of diamonds and stars on them attempting to figure out their meaning is a fairly amusing thing to do. Globally spread carpeting traditions were borrowed from eastern peoples who were the first to learn how to make yarn and fabric out of fibrous materials.
Women's adornments in India: Sacred meaning
Upon hearing word combination “Hindu woman” an image of a beautiful woman wearing sari and definitely with numerous adornments and pictures on her body emerges in our imagination. Where does passion for body decoration come from in national traditions of this people?
Your breakfast, Sir! How people start their day around the world
A mini toast, a slice of cheese and a sip of strong coffee. "That is not a buffet!" a waiter will pronounce indignantly, looking at the disgruntled tourist’s face. The generous Ukrainian soul cannot understand how locals manage to eat their full with that. Therefore, before going to a new country, you need to know exactly whether in the evening you should prepare a couple of sandwiches to indulge them in the morning,...
Lakes that are changing the idea of the power of the nature
At the bare mention of the word lake, our imagination pictures soothing, nostalgia-laden images of quite pond cosily embraced by the grassy hills. OUTLOOK prepared a selection of the most spectacular lakes, which will change your understanding of this work of nature. Each of them has something to surprise, whether it is unusual water shade, or frightening ability to petrify living creatures.
Закрыть
Outlook facebook page