RU  UK  EN
Статьи  >  Imagine  >  White gold of Tianxia. Chinese porcelain

White gold of Tianxia. Chinese porcelain

Автор: 23.05.2019 | art, traditions, China
The civilization of ancient China was one of the first to discover porcelain. It is established that back in II millennium BC the firing temperature of pottery found in the Yellow River was close to 1200 ° C. According to some researchers, the invention of porcelain was dictated by the desire to find a replacement for greenstone and jade.

The optimal ratio of porcelain stone and kaolin, giving a ringing thin-walled shard, touched by a matte blush, was not found immediately. Celadons of the Tang epoch, massive vases with embossed décor, covered with iron-containing glaze, played an important role of a transitional link from Han Chinese ceramics to Chinese porcelain. The degree of oxidation of iron determined the color of the product: with an excess of oxygen, the vessel acquired a yellowish color, and with a limited access of air, the vases were painted in soft bluish tones.

The golden age of Chinese porcelain began in 1004 when the first porcelain factory was launched in Jingdezhen to serve the needs of the court ceremonial. The rich deposits of kaolin along the shores of Poyang Lake made it possible not to feel sorry for white clay for porcelain dough. To improve the plastic properties of the material, the kneaded mass was kept in special storages for at least a decade, and before being put into the oven, they were beaten with hammers for a long time. From the flame of tightly sealed underground furnaces, the “white gold of Tianxia” emerged - graceful thin shards with a translucent wall that were not inferior in strength to the iron. Roasting lasted for two days. On the third day the oven was opened and it was allowed to cool down until the next morning.7-things-to-consider-when-collecting-chinese-porcelains.jpgPhoto christies.com

Spar glaze was harvested separately by mixing the ingredients in slightly different proportions than when kneading dough. Glazing compositions were applied in several layers of different degrees of transparency, with the result that a matte sheen appeared on the surface of the products. Cups with hidden patterns that appear in the thickness of the walls when heated were of the special priz. It is easy to explain the focus: the vessels were glued together from two halves, covering the inside with a floral pattern, and leaving the outer part white.

In the Yuan era, the refined technique of underglaze cobalt painting appears which than became the hallmark of medieval China. The thick blue tint of cobalt paints imported from the islands of Sumatra and Java emphasized the connection of the ruling house with the deified Sky and effectively shaded the shining whiteness of the crock.1217.jpgPhoto tooveys.com

During the Min period, spar glaze palette was supplemented with rich shades of carmine and cinnabar, which were probably extracted from copper powder. The ruby-red glazed porcelain was revered as a state relic and was involved in the ceremony of worship. Unfortunately, the technology of making red porcelain has been lost for centuries. There are no more than a hundred copies of it left around the world, ten of which are in Jingdezhen Ceramics Museum. Porcelain vessels, decorated with monochrome yellow painting, represented the reigning bogdyhan. A calligraphically written stamp reproduced the slogan of the board.

See also: Kintsugi. Japanese art of restoration

Starting from the 15th century, Utsai style, using five basic tones — yellow, red, blue, white, and green — becomes popular in Tianxia. The drawing at first seems to be sketchy and devoid of fantasy, but a deep symbolic subtext breaks down behind imaginary simplicity. The lotus flower signified purity of thoughts and nobility of spirit, peony - wealth and honor, an orchid branch - family happiness and longevity. A pair of phoenixes or mandarin ducks foreshadowed loyalty in love, and the image of a deer indicated the high position of the cup holder. Plots with dragons, lions and elephants personified the desire of power, strength and happiness to the imperial family, and the composition “three friends of a cold winter” from a branch of blossoming plum, young shoots of bamboo and pine served as the personification of courage and resilience.81VylE560lL._SL1200_.jpgPhoto boingboing.net

During the tea ceremony in the imperial palace, chinaware served as the ranking of participants. The right to drink tea from a piala with a print of a five-fingered dragon under amber glaze was possessed only by crowned persons - the Son of Heaven with his second half and the widowed empress, and the combination of the background and monogram colors could determine the title of grandee and rank of concubine.washer-sotheby-s-n-lot-bkrlfr-chinese-ceramics-work-of-Ecf7872670ecc50337e3fd5cb75e8b9a0.jpgPhoto interest.pics

The reign of the Manchu Qing dynasty was marked by the rapid development of polychrome porcelain painting. The great admirer of porcelain was the emperor Kangxi, in which seven-color cobalt pigments came into vogue with variations from pale blue to dark purple. The closest descendants of Kangxi, the son Yongcheng and the grandson Qianlong, patronized the “doucai” technique, which means “rival colors”. The combination of underglaze and overglaze painting techniques opened the way to the creation of complex subject paintings based on classical Chinese literature. Before glazing, the outline of the future pattern was marked with cobalt, and after firing, the products were painted with enamel paints.

Cover photo nouahsark.com

Вам это будет интересно:
The way they dance
What is it that characterizes any nation without much words and long explanations? Dances, of course, because it is these movements, refined over centuries, that can tell a foreigner about other peoples much more than thick history books. If you carefully watch and feel the way people dance in different countries, their mind set will become much more comprehensible. And these aren’t mere words.
Twelve guises of South Korea
Only dancing and wearing mask, Korean peasants were able to express their disgust towards rudeness or greed of the hosts or apply to some deity with extraordinary request. Keeping anonymity, the people played out the scenes from life, cried, and laughed. At the end of the performance the destiny awarded the good characters and punished villains.
Crafts of Uzbekistan. Straw Items
OUTLOOK was lucky to visit hospitable Uzbekistan and get better acquainted with crafts of this amazing country. Today we tell you about art of straw work, about materials that craftsmen use and what secrets and unique features of this craft are. Feel the world with us!
Eastern music of Sufi: Qawali
‘Love evolves when one looks in the eyes of the person beloved seeing there God’, in such a way the lines of some Arabian song called Qawali is translated. The authorship of this chant is ascribed to Eastern strangers Sufi who tending to find the sense of existence strolled around the half an Earth bare-footed. In the travels they composed songs where they told narration describing what they had to endure.
The kingdom of ice and snow. Harbin Festival
For not to have among our readers too many sad and whiny people counting days till summer or even warm spring days, the OUTLOOK would like to share at least one reason to love the cold season with all heart. The opportunity is to go to the Chinese city of Harbin and eyewitness fantastic and cool festival of ice and snow.
Forgotten art: Chinese ceremony in South Korea
After the walking along the boisterous streets of Seoul one wants to take it easy in a café drinking a cup of flavored tea, however, it never happens like that. Good teahouses are found out only near Buddhist monasteries or at the bohemian pedestrian street Insadon. Chinese ceremony in Korea that is incomparable with the rough schedule of offices and remaining the joy of wise people and privilege of the masters.
Malanka and Vasyl winter fun: Carnival in Ukrainian style
The New Year in Ukraine did not always start with a Christmas tree, and instead of Santa Claus and Snow Maiden, guests were waiting fora minx girl - Malanka and motor-boy Vasyl accompanied by the retinue. All the follies were out of hand: the ridiculed riddles carried a sacred content, dictated by the logic of the myth of the duel of spring and winter.
Mulled wine: Yummy way to keep warm
Vitamins, development of resistance to cold, correct day regimen... That's all good and useful, especially when the winter weather swirls in, but sometimes we all have to pamper ourselves and at the same time to be protected against germs and colds. And the best way to do it is to sip some mulled wine.
New Year in offbeat way: Traditions around the world
In anticipation of the holiday rush, we took a sleigh, harnessed reindeer and enjoyed a ride across the planet to find out unique customs for welcoming New Year worldwide.
Maculele: dance to make the sparks fly
When the first emigrants from Africa came to Brazil, they brought rousing actions in the country that had been living upon the principle ‘Life is a carnival’. As the citizens of Africa explained, dance maculele appeared in the environment where slaves had to protect themselves from the encroachment of their owners.
Super-chilled: Best festivals of ice and snow art
Ice and snow has long been used by artists to create different figures and objects, and only 1960, this age-old skill became a new trend of a land art! The largest number of winter artworks is created during special festivals about which we will tell our readers.
Eskimo igloo: It is easy as a pie to build castles in ...snow
A little son came to his father and suggested to run away from mom and granny to the North Pole? Now, do not indulge into tragic speeches of severe frosts, pitch darkness of the polar night and hungry polar bears! Give a conspiracy wink to a little brave one, and give him a real man's job for his school winter holidays that is to learn how to build an igloo, night shelter in ever-frost lands.
Rice canvas. Tambo Art
The Japanese are very creative people, especially when it comes to rice. If they have some extra spare time and large spacious rice paddies, then routine process of growing an agricultural crop turns into art...
Game for aristocrats.Cricket
English highest society and cricket… sounds almost like tea with milk. They can exist separately, but together they taste more delicious. And if you're still confused with cricket, croquet and croquettes, do not worry – find explanation below.
Kalash: Amazing people in the mountains of Pakistan
While watching Discovery or other popular science shows it seems that our planet has been explored and examined length and breadth long ago. However some phenomena that we come across in our lives literally knock us down. Like, for instance, the fact that in Hindu Kush Mountains mysterious and blonde Kalash people live in isolation...
Mould your hobby. History of pottery
In a local history museum in every country you visit, you will certainly notice similar archaeological finds - fragments of clay products. Pottery, born millennia ago, but “living” even today, can rightfully be considered one of the most tenacious one. The uniqueness of clay was noticed by our distant ancestors who lived in caves ...
World ghettos: Chinese Scope in San-Francisco
We continue our series of features about national ghettos. Today OUTLOOK tells you about the largest ethnical enclave of the city of San Francisco in the USA – about local Chinatown.
Workshop on Cooking Varenyky Dumplings for the Ambassador's Spouses Club from the Outlook Project And Culinary Expert Ievgen Klopotenko
On the initiative of the Ambassador's Spouses Club, Outlook Project organized a culinary workshop on shaping varenyky dumplings from a Ukrainian chef and co-owner of 100 Years Back in Future Ievgen Klopotenko.
Las Jornadas del Olivar y el Aceite: vegetative oysters feast
Lovers of olives and olive oil mark small town of Baena on the map of Spain with the red pen. Annually from November 9 till November 11 it becomes the place where gastronomists from all over the world gather. Various events, background information and plenty of diverse delicacies are awaiting those who dare crack the stone of wonder-fruit.
VIDEO: Glass from the Holy Town
Hebron is well known for being the city of 3 [three] religions and 3 [three] civilizations, a real place of power. Perhaps that is why by twist of fate there emerged glass which looks fragile, but is centuries old, the same as Hebron.
Закрыть
Outlook facebook page